EAO strategies are best understood as the result of multifarious and often contentious relations between differently placed actors of heterogeneous movements that reach deep into wider society.
The vaccination process across Southeast Asia is proceeding slowly, and neighbouring powers such as China and India are eager to take advantage of this situation through what has been labelled ‘vaccine diplomacy’.
Over the past thirty years, peace agreements reached following civil wars have rarely lived up to their promises, let alone the hopes for societal transformation and ‘positive peace’ adumbrated at the time of their signature.
Coincidentally, Tokyo has been supportive of the region’s efforts to narrow development gaps among member states and to tackle emerging challenges, such as climate change and disaster risk reduction.
China’s model of prosperity without democracy is becoming more appealing in Southeast Asia.